Ipswich Union Workhouse

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 4   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 1Photos courtesy Steve Girling
‘Hi. Thought these might be of interest to your website, this tablet is at the Heath Rd Hospital site in a yard with no public access so many people may not know that it exists. Regards, Steve Girling’ Many thanks to Steve for unearthing this lost fragment of Ipswich history. The decorative carved tablet reads (some characters speculative):


Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 3
Below: close-ups with broken corner of the tablet (discoloured) showing smaller lettering.
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 5   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 6
Note the reappearance of the name of the Chairman, Reverend Wickham Tozer, who appears on the list of local worthies connected to Rosehill Library, which see for a note on Tozer's role the Akenham Burial Case.
[UPDATE 6.6.2020: Nicholas Raphael got in touch from Sydney, Australia to say that the Chairman of the Building Commiittee listed here is his third great uncle – Alderman Abraham Raphael Jr. For Nic's full message, see our Old Jewish Cemetery page.]

Ipswich workhouses
They began their existence in the county in the second half of the 16th century. The workhouse within Christ's Hospital in Ipswich was at the very forefront of this new method of providing assistance to the poor and needy of society:-
Christ's Hospital (Borough Workhouse): 1572-c.1600 (30 places).
A parliamentary report of 1777 listed a dozen parish workhouses in operation in Ipswich: St Clement (with accommodation for up to 70 inmates), St Helen (10), St Lawrence (25), St Margaret (100), St Mary at Elms (10), St Mary at the Key (25), St Mary Stoke (30), St Mary Tower (30), St Matthew (30), St Nicholas (20), St Peter (28), and St Stephen (24).
Great Whip Street (Union Workhouse, alias The Spike): 1837-1899 (400 spaces);
(moved to Heathfields Poor Law Institution): 1899-1930 (400 spaces

In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a 'Spike', was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. The earliest known use of the term dates from 1631.
The origins of the workhouse can be traced to the Poor Law Act of 1388, which attempted to address the labour shortages following the Black Death in England by restricting the movement of labourers, and ultimately led to the state becoming responsible for the support of the poor. But mass unemployment following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the introduction of new technology to replace agricultural workers in particular, and a series of bad harvests, meant that by the early 1830s the established system of poor relief was proving to be unsustainable. The New Poor Law of 1834 attempted to reverse the economic trend by discouraging the provision of relief to anyone who refused to enter a workhouse. Some Poor Law authorities hoped to run workhouses at a profit by utilising the free labour of their inmates, who generally lacked the skills or motivation to compete in the open market. Most were employed on tasks such as breaking stones, crushing bones to produce fertiliser, or picking oakum using a large metal nail known as a spike, perhaps the origin of the workhouse's nickname.

Life in a workhouse was intended to be harsh, to deter the able-bodied poor and to ensure that only the truly destitute would apply. But in areas such as the provision of free medical care and education for children, neither of which was available to the poor in England living outside workhouses until the early 20th century, workhouse inmates were advantaged over the general population, a dilemma that the Poor Law authorities never managed to reconcile.
As the 19th century wore on, workhouses increasingly became refuges for the elderly, infirm and sick rather than the able-bodied poor, and in 1929 legislation was passed to allow local authorities to take over workhouse infirmaries as municipal hospitals. Although workhouses were formally abolished by the same legislation in 1930, many continued under their new appellation of Public Assistance Institutions under the control of local authorities. It was not until the National Assistance Act of 1948 that the last vestiges of the Poor Law disappeared, and with them the workhouses.

Up to 1834, the story can be traced on our Tooley's and Smart's Almshouses page and our Christ's Hospital School page.
Piecemeal provision of poor houses in each parish were largely funded from bequests from the estates of wealthy citizens.

The Old Poor Law
By the Poor Law Act of 1601, the parish was made the unit responsible for the care and employment of the poor. Every household and land occupier was rated (rather like Council Charge) and the money paid into a parish fund. Two villagers, usually farmers or tradesmen, were elected each Easter, as Overseers, to administer the Poor Law, the parish fund and the needs of the poor. The Act classified the poor into three groups:-
1. the helpless, who through age, infirmity, short-term illness, accident or personal crisis, were unable to work or fend for themselves; these had to be cared for by the parish.
2. the able-bodied but unemployed; these had to be found work, so they could provide for their families.
3. those who could, but would not work ; these were to be punished in Houses of Correction. See our Woodbridge page for a surviving ‘Correction’ sign.

In practice most parishes provided for the helpless and able-bodied unemployed, by means of out-relief: the giving of money, food, fuel, clothing and medical care in their own homes. A minority of parishes placed their helpless in a ‘poor house’, rather like today’s concept of sheltered accommodation. By 1776 less than 20% of Suffolk parishes had a workhouse, in which the poor were maintained in exchange for work, usually spinning and weaving. An inventory of Assington workhouse in 1808 shows that the 23 paupers were provided with 18 spinning wheels, two reels and a loom to work on. At Long Melford, in 1802, the 29 paupers were employed in wool combing and spinning. During that year they produced 644lbs of combed wool ready for spinning and 84lb of spun yarn.

House of Industry
Many towns starting with Bristol in 1696, set up a single large workhouse to accommodate the poor from all the parishes within the town boundary. Sudbury, in Suffolk, united its three parishes in 1702 and Bury St Edmunds its two in 1747. Rural parishes, in the east and southeast of Suffolk, adopted the same idea and based on the ancient Hundred areas, closed all the poor and workhouses and built a large central House of Industry. The aim was to reduce the cost to the ratepayers, by cutting down administrative charges. Between 1757 and 1781, nine Houses of Industry, covering nearly 50% of parishes, had been built in Suffolk.  A survey of these Houses was made by Thomas Ruggles and published by Arthur Young in 1794. The poor were employed in all the Houses to comb and spin wool for Norwich clothiers. Four of the nine Houses also spun hemp into linen, used to make pauper’s clothing. In addition, at Oulton, near the coast at Lowestoft, they made nets for the herring fishery; at Bulcamp, shoes and stockings and at Nacton, ropes, sacks and plough lines were produced.

The New Poor Law
The dual system of parish workhouses and Houses of Industry ended in 1834. Population increases, rising unemployment in rural areas and economic depression, following the Napoleonic wars, had led to a massive increase in expenditure on the poor. Edwin Chadwick was appointed, by the Government, to devise a more effective, national system of maintaining the poor. His solution, based on the earlier ideas of Jeremy Bentham and evidence from the Suffolk Houses of Industry, was that the 15,000 parishes of England and Wales should be formed into 600 Union districts, each with a central workhouse. Thus the New Poor Law was partly based on the earlier Suffolk system. The New Poor Law was the first instance of a nationwide organisation, being controlled by central government. The Poor Law Commissioners and Board laid down uniform rules and regulations, which were applied to every pauper in every workhouse in England and Wales.

The never-realised aim was to end out-relief and make all paupers go into the workhouse. Daily life was intended to be monotonous; the food to be just below the quality of that available to the poorest family who kept themselves out of the workhouse; the work tedious and repetitive and often pointless. Even though the new workhouses were often of the same design as prisons and seen as such by the inmates, anyone could leave if they wanted to. But if they had no employment there was little choice between starvation and the workhouse.

Pre-Union Workhouses
In Ipswich relief of the poor was reorganised in 1835 to comply with the previous year’s New Poor Law. Three Relieving Officers replaced the parochial overseers and most of the old poor houses were shut. The inmates at this time totalled 176; these were divided between the three largest poor houses: St Margaret’s for women and girls, St Clement’s for men and boys and St Mary-Le-Tower for the aged and infirm. It is worth noting that slums were a Victorian phenomenon; the word first appears in an 1812 dictionary. Unemployment in rural areas led to mass migration to the towns to seek work. This in turn led to a huge demand for accommodation – something which became increasingly profitable for those who owned land and any sort of buildings. Overcrowded, poorly-built housing with insanitary conditions and lack of hygiene led swiftly to high mortality rates, particularly amongst the infants.
Drunkenness and lawlessness accompanied the selling, churning populations of the slums. The main focus of slum dwelling in Ipswich was the Parish of St Clement which included ‘The Potteries’ and streets running south from St Helens Street down to the river, as mentioned in our page on Courts & yards. By the 1830s the problem of slum-living became an issue which could not be ignored by the authorities. However, much of the early moves to alleviate the problem stemmed from philanthropists.
Ipswich Historic lettering: Felaw map 7
Great Whip Street Workhouse ('New Union Workhouse' or
St Peter's Workhouse)
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a 'Spike'. This may have been due to the use of a metal nail or spike to tease out rope fibres. The new, purpose-built Union Workhouse was built between Great Whip Street and the Orwell in 1837 with a capacity for 400 people. Everyone from the other three houses were transferred there. Townsmen usually located institutions which dealt with ‘undesirables’ away from the town centre, so perhaps Over Stoke was seen as a suitably remote place to deal with the destitute. The Great Whip Street workhouse location and layout are shown on the 1848 and 1867 maps on our Felaw Street page.
The ghostly image of the workhouse appears in the background of a pre-1883 photograph of St Peter's Vicarage on our Bridgeward Club page.
It is also shown in the background of
Davy's illustration of the laying of the Wet Dock lock foundation stone, 1839. Ipswich Historic Lettering: Davy drawing icon
Ipswich Historic lettering: St Peter's Workhouse garden
An engraving of apparently idyllic orchards and gardens of the Great Whip Street Workhouse can be seen as propaganda. In the distance a paddle steamer and other shipping can be seen on the Orwell.
The men – as in most of the rest of Suffolk – were set to pick oakum; this is is a  the tedious process of unraveling set lengths of tarred ship’s ropes into fibres to be used in shipbuilding for caulking or packing the joints of timbers. Other work included making rush matting, pumping water, or grinding corn, by hand crank wheels or by a tread-wheel (a device common in prisons), gardening and farming the workhouse land to grow wheat, oats and potatoes. During a 14 hour workhouse day, between 6am and 8pm, the able-bodied paupers spent 10 hours, from 7am to 12pm and 1pm to 6pm, at work.  The boys were set to mend shoes and the women and girls to knit. Nobody was now paid for their work.
Ipswich Historic lettering: Oakum pickerOakum pickers
Women were also given domestic work to do, including scrubbing floors, forms and tables with cold water and soda. They also laundered clothes, looked after the infants and helped to nurse the sick. Vagrants, or tramps, known as Casual Paupers, would be given a night’s shelter in exchange for work the next morning. For men, this was picking 1lb of oakum and for women, 3 hours washing, scrubbing and cleaning.

Although designed mainly to provide work for the able-bodied poor, by the end of the 19th Century the workhouse had become a combination of hospital, lunatic asylum, old people’s home and school.  Costs were cut as demand for relief rose. Life within the workhouse was almost unremittingly bleak, yet some lived their whole lives within its confines.
An engraving of apparently idyllic orchards and gardens of the Great Whip Street Workhouse can be seen as propaganda.

"The paupers on their first admission will have a comfortable apartment..."
An insight into conditions in 'St Peter's Workhouse' can be gleaned from this report in the East Anglian Daily Times, 26 November 1880 sent to us by Lisa Smith, to whom our thanks:-

"IMPORTANT ALTERATIONS AT ST. PETER’S WORKHOUSE, IPSWICHIpswich Historic lettering: Workhouse article 1880
For a long time the question of cooking at the Workhouse has been one of the most difficult subjects with which our Board of Guardians have had to deal. It has been such a constant source of complaint and expense that at last the Board decided “take the bull by the horns,” abolish the whole of the old troublesome apparatus, and in its place have a perfect system of steam cooking. To carry this out, a committee was appointed, consisting of Mr. F. Turner, Mr. W. Flake, and Mr. H.M. Elton. After going carefully into the whole thing, these gentlemen came to the conclusion that, properly carried out, the use of tea, would not only effect a great saving in the coal bill for cooking purposes, but that if the system were extended to the baths and wash-houses, economy would result to such an extent that the first outlay of the apparatus would be quickly covered. The committee favoured the system of Messrs. Barford & Perkins, and the Board adopting the report, the work has been satisfactorily done by that firm.

Though Messrs. Barford & Perkins’s system involves the introduction of an apparently complex service of pipes, it is in reality simplicity itself. A large boiler is fixed in any part of the building, and from this steam is conveyed to the most remote corner. At the Ipswich Workhouse an old outhouse near the kitchen has been converted into the engine-room, and here is now fixes a three-horse-power vertical boiler or steam generator fitted with self-feeding apparatus. From this a pipe is led into the kitchen, and connected with a cooking apparatus, comprising a steam closet and three coppers, two of 60 gallons each, and one of 40 gallons. Of the two larger of these one is used for soup, and the other for tea, whilst the smaller is devoted to the concoction of gruel.

The steam chest is provided with four trays, and is capable of cooking puddings, meat, potatoes, fish, or anything the fancy of an individual, or the rules of an institution such as a Workhouse, may dictate, for a party of 500. At the top is a jointed pipe for supplying each of the coppers with water, and at the back is an indicator,so that the cook is able to tell whether the stoker is attending to his duties properly. At present the waste steam from the cooking apparatus passes out into the sewer, but is to be utilised for the purpose of warming the dining hall. The apparatus does away with three coppers and furnaces. Pipes also pass on to the old boiling room and provide hot and cold water at all times for the scullery requirements.

So much for the cooking at the House, but the greatest and most important alterations are those with reference to the baths and lavatories. The old bath-rooms were dark and damp places, brick floored, and fitted with large blue slate tanks placed close up to the wall. In the case of the old men, the bath-room and the dormitories were at opposite ends of the buildings, and the inmates had to march through cold draughty passages not only to get to the baths, but also on their return from immersion in hot water. In the infirmary the sick had to cross the yard to go to their bath-room, which was a lean-to shed used as a scullery, in which a slate tank had been put. This bath has for some years been one of the causes of complaint of the Government Inspector. The sides of the baths were also high and narrow, so that the old folks could with difficulty get in, and more than once one of these unfortunate people has had a fall in the attempt, and sustained severe bruises.

Primitive as these were, there were only three in the house for the men, and two for the women. Now eleven rooms have been fitted up with baths, including a separate one which has been termed the “itch ward,” an addition which the officers fully appreciate. These baths are all of red concrete, cased in wood at the sides and tops, and are fitted with hot and cold water and waste taps. These are both cheap and substantial, and have also the further advantage of cleanly appearance, which is more than can be said of the old slate tanks. The floors of the bath-rooms are also boarded, and those attached to the sick wards furnished with a fire-place. On either side of the house there is also a large tank, that on the men’s side holding 100 gallons, and that on the female side 150. These are made on the jacketed principle, that is to say with a space between the pan holding the water and the side of the tank. The cisterns are fitted with self-feeding apparatus, and so fill themselves with cold water.The steam from the boiler already described circulates in this space, and heats the water to boiling pitch in a very short time. Pipes lead from these tanks, and convey the hot water to the various parts of the building for the baths and lavatories.

The laundry is likewise included in the reform. The three old coppers have been turned out of doors, and their places taken by boiling parson the same style as the jacketed tanks just mentioned. The eleven washing pans round the sides of the place are retained, but each will be fitted with a cold water tap. From these taps they will be filled, and the steam turned on to each separately, and in five minutes boiling water is ready for the washerwoman’s hands.In one tank the soap is dissolved  by steam, in the same manner. If properly managed, these alterations will effect a saving in this part of the house alone of from 20 to 25 per cent. The steam from the boiling pans is carried round the walls to the drying room. Here, that which is condemned is taken away, whilst that still of use is carried on to the drying closet, and utilised for drying the linen.

The work thus done by this one generator and furnace was formerly carried on at immense labour and in anything but a satisfactory manner by 14 large coppers, each heated by a separate furnace. This furnaces consumed about five tons of coal a week. The new boiler only consumes about two tons of steam coal, a saving on that item alone of three tons of coal a week. The laundry, which is supplied by steam in this manner, is about 300 yards from the generator, and in all about a mile of piping is used in the building. It should also be mentioned that high pressure is not necessary to carry on the work. We saw the cooking apparatus, and the hot-water tanks going with only a pressure of between two and three pounds of steam. The contract for the apparatus and fixing £337, and it is estimated that this outlay will be entirely covered by the first two years’ saving.

All the work has been carried out, under the superintendence of the Committee, Mr. Eyton taking the most active share, by Mr. Eley, the representative of Messrs. Barford and Perkins, who is also engaged in fixing a similar boiler at St. John’s Home. At this institution, however, the full system has not yet been adopted, though we venture to think this can only be a matter of time, as the advantages are so patent that the Guardians cannot long hold their hands. We might also mention that Messrs. Barford and Perkins’s apparatus has been adopted at the Bury St. Edmund’s Workhouse, and at Depwade, Pulham Market. For large establishments no more economical system can be found, and we would commend it to the attention of all who have the management of workhouses, asylums, or places of like character.

But the improvements at the Workhouse do not end with these new bath rooms etc. A thorough system of earth closets has been fixed in the room of the abominable old places hitherto in use. The old female receiving ward, a place with a brick floor, lighted by a window in the roof 18 inches square and thoughtfully provided with two open ventilators, having been taken as a bath-room, the infant’s school-room is to be converted into a receiving ward, so that the paupers on their first admission will have a comfortable apartment with a boarded floor and well lighted. The same improving hand is visible all through the house, and everything is done to make life within the walls bearable.

This work has been carried out by the inmates, the only cost being that of the materials, and those of our readers who may feel inclined  to inspect the place, will, we are sure, in no way begrudge the outlay. The alterations will all be completed in about a week, or fortnight at the outside, and we may add that then the master (Mr. H. Sidney) will be only too pleased what has been effected to anyone who will pay him a visit. It now only remains for us to congratulate the committee upon the manner in which they have discharged their duty. The changes have entailed a large amount of time and thought, but the result fully compensates for this, and we have no doubt that the Board generally will thank them most heartily for their valuable assistance."

After this lengthy exposition, one might assume that the Workhouse would continue for many years, however by the time of an article in The Ipswich Journal (12 September 1896) vigorous discussions were conducted to decide on the contractor to build a new (replacement) Workhouse on the eastern edges of Ipswich at Heath Road.

Heath Road Workhouse and Infirmary
The workhouse in Over Stoke lasted only sixty-two years or so. It cannot have been built to a good standard as one writer describes it towards the end of its life as 'crumbling'. After thirty years of encouragement/demands by the Poor Commission, an expensive (and extensive) new workhouse was built from 1896 on heathland at the east end of Woodbridge Road – today this is known as Woodbridge Road East. It was
known as Heathfields Poor Law Institution and it was one of the last workhouses built in England. The redbrick receiving block and Porter's Lodge stood here until late 2015 acting for a number of years as the Borough's Homeless Families Unit, eventually giving way to a large modern health centre. The workhouse complex opened in 1899 and was built with special regard for the sick and elderly; the rest of the residents were almost by definition deemed lazy or, at best, immoral. Although listed as having capacity for 400 souls, some say that it was around 500. By 1912 it housed 385 inmates and 17 officials.
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Heathfields map1902 map
The 1902 map detail of the north-east corner of the California estate (above) shows Woodbridge Road running east-west along the upper part of the image. Spring Road meets it at the 'Lattice Barn' – still standing at this time (the public house named after it was built over the road). Working from the far right: Heath Road as we know it today, Lattice Avenue and Goring Road were yet to be built, as was Colchester Road which would eventually join Woodbridge Road just east of the Workhouse Porter's Lodge.
The geographical relationship between the Workhouse and St John's Home (at lower left, as mentioned below) is clear here.

In the early 20th century it was decided to change the Victorian name of Union Workhouse to 'Heathfields'. The Union was dissolved in 1930 when Poor Law Unions and their Boards of Guardians were dissolved and the task of dealing with poverty was made the responsibity of the Ipswich Corporation's Public Health Department. The workhouse continued as an 'Old People's Home' and eventually served as the nucleus of the new general hospital in the 1970s, eventually replacing Anglesea Road Hospital in the early 1980s. The site has seen several modern developments down Heath Road.

St John's Children's Home
During the 1870s up to 235 workhouse children, initially not all from the Ipswich Union, were rehoused. St John's Children's Home opened at the
southern end of Bloomfield Street on the California estate in 1879. See our Brickyards page for an 1883 map of the Bloomfield Street brickyards showing 'St John's Home' to the south. Our 1902 map above shown the Home in relation to the Heathfields Workhouse. 'Freelands' as it became known was demolished in the 1970s and was eventually replaced by housing.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse plan 1
'Thought these might be of interest too although they are drainage plans they show a basic layout of the workhouse. Kind regards, Steve Girling'. These plans give an idea of the 'pavillion-style' and extent of the The Ipswich Workhouse on the east of the town. As so often occurs, this complex formed the basis for Heath Road Wing ('H.R.W.') of Ipswich General Hospital, which supplemented health services provided at the Anglesea Road Wing ('A.R.W.'), which opened in 1836 as the Ipswich & East Suffolk Hospital. By 1988 all hospital services had moved to Heath Road and the site at the north of Berners Street was used to build a care home, retaining the eye-catcher portico.
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse plan 2

Steve Girling's seemingly bottomless archive turns up this intriguing postcard:
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse postcard
'I have attached a copy of a postcard in my collection of a group of people with a board written on it "DINNA FORCE, HEATHFIELDS" on the back of the card is written "Feb 1918". I don't think the building in the background exists anymore: the building is possibly the one on Peter [Higginbotham]'s workhouse site [see Links] in a photo dated c1937. I think this building faced the Woodbridge Rd side of the site and has been demolished, there is a very similar doorway still on the site hidden by a modern flat roof extension at the entrance 15 of today's hospital (also pictured on Peter's site dated 2001) but the windows above the door canopy are different to the postcard windows.' Thanks to Steve for this enigmatic image with its even more enigmatic inscription: 'DINNA FORCE'? The only linguistic context we can come up with is in the Scottish dialect e.g. "Dinna force me to answer ye."Presumably, this is an assemblage of institution staff at the end of the First World War.

Heathfields in the 21st century
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 7   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 82016 photos courtesy Steve Girling
'I have attached photos of the concealed door of the old Heathfields workhouse behind the current entrance 15 at the hospital, there is also a couple of photos of the date 1898 in the brickwork on the  'cartouche' at the top, on the photos of the back façade of the building the 'cartouche' is blank as it would not of been so visible as it looked over other buildings. Regards, Steve Girling.' Thanks to Steve for these photographs of the surviving Heathfields buildings. The dated brickwork tympanum provides interest on several counts. The beautiful monogram features the interlaced '1   8   9   8', although you would have to know a bit of the background to put the  numerals in the correct order (see also the date monogram in the interior spandrels of the Corn Exchange). Moreover, we have stated above that 'the new workhouse was built from 1896'; this suggests that this particular wing, at least, was opened in 1898.
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 9   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 10
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 11   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Workhouse 12

See also Peter Higginbotham's excellent resource Workhouse: the story of the Workhouse in Britain (see Links) for much more information plus images about Ipswich – and Suffolk – Union Workhouses.

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