Long missing from the Ipswich Historic Lettering website, almost all of these photographs were taken on a single walk around the city centre in the June 2013. The massive task of building the page and researching the examples was finally completed six years later. It does not seek to be comprehensive, but to illustrate the huge variety of historic lettering visible in the city. Needless to say, this page represents a time capsule and some changes have occurred in the intervening years.

Norwich is the county town of Norfolk, situated on the River Wensum. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important. Norwich is the most complete medieval city in Britain and it has notable cathedral. The fabric of the city centre is rich in historic lettering, including enticing street nameplates.
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 1   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 1a2013 images
2 Recorder Road. Corner with 120 Prince of Wales Road (the Compleat Angler pub); note the uncomforatble closeness of the twobuildings. ‘New Patrick’s Yard’: ‘1912’ is the date on the gable end (not seen by us). The decorative brickwork entrance has the monogram ‘OSLJ’ (not necessarily in that order) in its terra cotta keystone with two matching tablets on each side of the door showing trees.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 2   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 2a
79 Prince of Wales Road. 'RAILWAY MISSION' in large, relief capitals above the central door is part of a well-preserved building, with a fine Art Nouveau facade It is still in use as the Prince of Wales Road Evangelical Church.
As with most East Anglian towns and cities, the railway station in Norwich was built outside of the immediate centre because its main use was not for passengers, but for goods, especially livestock, which needed space to be penned nearby until the time for their journey began. There was another station on a different line closer to the city centre, but it is Thorpe station that has survived. As in Cambridge and Ipswich, where the main stations were similarly placed for the same reason, the area became home to dozens of rows of terraced houses, for workers on the railway and in the industries that the presence of the line generated. Although the Church of England was not slow to respond to what it saw as the pastoral needs of these workers, there were plenty of other denominations elbowing for their attention. For a start, many incomers were Catholics, and it was in the 19th century that the Catholic population of the city ballooned. But it was also the time that the congregational chapels took off, and although many of them have fallen prey to demolition in recent decades, there are some interesting survivals, including this little Railway Mission chapel of the 1890s. Prince of Wales Road, like Princes Street in Ipswich, was built specifically to connect the railway station with the heart of the town, and still today this chapel is a familiar sight for pedestrians en route between one and the other. Happily, it is still in use for its original purpose; as the Prince of Wales Road Evangelical Church, it maintains two services every Sunday. [Information from Simon Knott's Norfolk Churches website (see Links).]
(The Railway Mission still exists as a national organisation – not now connected to this building.)

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 5  Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 3
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 4
60-62 Prince of Wales Road. Night club and Hotel Belmonte. Decorative mouldings on pilasters at hotel entrance with the hotel name frosted into the glass door.
Above the shop-front: large, bulging, three-dimensional scrolling, tiled panels bearing ‘No 62’ and ‘No 60’. A sneaky use of the superior 'o' inside the top of the 'N'.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 7   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 8
Hardwick House, Agricultural Hall Plain. A grand neo-classical stone building; former ‘POST OFFICE.’ (carved into the pediment in relief capitals below an elaborate crown with swags of flowers in stone). Hardwick House was designed by Philip Hardwick and it opened in January 1866 as Harvey and Hudson’s Crown Bank, later taken over by the Post Office which was there for almost a century. Savills has been operating in Norwich since 1950 and moved out of the building in 2018. Parts are residential.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 9
‘BANK PLAIN’ street nameplate on railings outside former bank building by E. Boardman & Son and Brierley & Rutherford, 1929 (and extended by Fielden & Mawson in 1984-85). Red brick with Portland stone detailing (Listed Grade II). Barclays Bank has left and it is now a conference and event venue operated by the OPEN Youth Trust. Only a few yards from Hardwicke House. Typical Norwich cartouche-style street nameplate in cast iron.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 10   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 11
Commemorative plaque on Opie House, 26 Castle Meadow. ‘AMELIA OPIE; Authoress. Dramatist. Poetess. and brilliant Conversationalist. Wife of John Opie the famous Portrait painter. and daughter of James Alderson the eminent surgeon of St George’s Colegate Street. Lived in this or an adjacent House; Born Nov. 12th 1769; Died Dec. 2nd 1853; Interred in the Old World Friends Burial Ground at the Guildencroft.’ Copper relief porait in roundel. The plaque and roundel are set above the ground-floor rustication to the left of Opie House at the corner of Opie Street (building is Listed Grade II). Amelia Opie is seen in profile wearing a peaked Quaker bonnet, based on the 1829 bronze medallion by David d’Angers, who in 1836 carved a more idealised marble bust, versions of which are in the Musée des Beaux Arts, Angers and the Castle Museum Norwich, acquired 2008. The date of the plaque is not known but H.A. Miller had begun producing these plaques with that to George Borrow in 1913. Opie House had been acquired by Mr Keefe, a solicitor, in 1932 by which date the plaque was presumably in place. (Description from Norfolk & Suffolk Public sculpture website (see Links).
Above right: ‘OPIE STREET’ street nameplate mounted on shaped board on the white brick of Castle Chambers.
Opie Street was originally called Devil’s Steps but was renamed after a local girl, Amelia Opie – see above.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 12   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 13
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 14   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 15  
Castle Chambers, Opie Street. This building is Listed Grade II and was built in 1877 for solicitor Sydney Cozens-Hardy who had founded his practice in 1873. The building features yellow/buff brick with terra cotta decoration. The firm of Cozens-Hardy LLP continues to occupy the building.
On the main entrance to Castle Chambers, the pediment bears the building name lettering in relief, picked out in colour with numerals above : a fine date monogram of '1877'; note the flattened top of the '8'. The ‘SCH’ monogram (for Sydney Cozens-Hardy) is in circle centred above each window and doorway at ground and first floor level.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 16
Corner of Opie Street and London Street: Sedan chair plaque. ‘Early in the 19th Century, a Sedan Chair stood for hire at this spot. which was then Devil's Alley, with steps leading from Castle Meadow to London Street.’

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 17
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 17a
57 London Street. ‘1844’; ‘1960’; ‘1900’. Dated plaques above the second storey windows of this sandstone building.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 18   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 18a
53 London Street (junction with Bedford Street): Fire Point plate,  ‘No. 74; FP; 13ft, 6in’. Overpainted in the green of the window surrounds and later restored to the original black characters and frame on a white background.
Although an Act of 1774 required each parish to maintain their own fire-fighting appliance, to be used by the local citizens when required, fire fighting was largely the responsibility of the insurance companies. By the mid 19th century the police were charged with providing a fire fighting service and wore distinctive uniforms (usually styled on naval practice). Water supplies for fire fighting were something of a problem but from the 1830s on most towns included bye-laws to force the water supply company (whether private or owned by the town) to fit hydrants to the water mains. From about the 1890s the hydrants were usually marked by a cast metal plate mounted high up (typically at the hight of a second floor window) on a nearby wall. Early examples were white with black markings, usually the letters F H (‘Fire Hydrant’) or F P (‘Fire Point’) and a number such as 7 0 indicating the distance in feet between the hydrant and the plate. During the Second World War any suitable water supply was marked by the letters 'E.W.S.' painted in white or yellow in letters about two feet (60cm) high on a suitable nearby wall. This marking was still seen into the 1960s on bridges over rivers and on walls close by ponds and the like. After the second world war a national standard was introduced consisting of a cast metal plate about ten inches (25cm) high by six inches (15cm) wide. This plate is yellow with a large letter H in black and the distance to the hydrant in smaller black numbers between the lower legs of the H. In some cases the older F P plates have been painted yellow with the lettering picked out in black, however as they are often hard to reach many remain in the original black and white. The post war hydrant plates are often seen mounted on stubby concrete posts set into the pavement. [Notes taken from:]

Scroll down for a Fire Point plate at Watts Court. Note also the vestigial 'E.W.S.' (Emergency Water Supply) sign in Lower Orwell Street, Ipswich. There is another 'EWS' example in Appleby-in-Westmorland.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 19   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 20
‘Bedford Street’ and St Andrews Hill’ cartouche-style, cast iron street nameplates. With explanatory historical panels below.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 21   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 22
30 London Street: former London And Provincial Bank. Built from Portland stone, and designed by the Norwich architect George Skipper (see also the Royal Arcade, below) in 1906/08.
Listed Grade II: ‘Portland stone. Roof not visible. 3- storeys. 4 bays. Rusticated ground floor with door in right-hand bay with marble Doric columns supporting architrave and broken pediment in round- headed recess. Ground floor windows in semi-circular hollow-chamfered arches with Keystone. Sash windows with pedimented surround and Vitruvian scroll stringcourse at first floor. Oval windows at 2nd floor. The first and 2nd floor windows are divided by attached Corinthian columns. 3-tier bowed window above entry supported by putti. Extravagant use of swag decoration at 2nd floor level. Modillion fascia cornice displaying ‘London and Provincial Bank’. Fine ground floor plaster-work ceiling to original banking hall.’

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 23   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 24
19 Castle Street:
Dipple and Conway Ltd, opticians' premises for three generations bears the company name in stylish characters and an excellent hanging pince-nez sign. The plaque next to it reads:
[1809 ; George III]

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 25   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 26
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 27   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 28
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 29
Royal Arcade, junction of Castle Street, Arcade Street, Back of the Inns.
'Designed by local architect George Skipper in the Arts and Crafts style popular at the end of the nineteenth century, the Royal Arcade was built on the site of an old coaching inn and was unveiled on the 25th May 1899. On the next day the Eastern Daily Press newspaper reported that ‘The general view of it is pleasing in the extreme, and there can be no doubt it will prove a permanent attraction to visitors, no less than to the townsfolk’.
Viewed from Gentleman's Walk the Arcade's façade is unremarkable and offers little hint of the architectural extravaganza to be found within. The single storey entrance opens up almost immediately into the arcade itself, two storeys in height, 247 feet (75 metres) in length and tiled throughout in pastel shades of greens and creams. With its fully glazed roof supported by slim timber arches the whole interior is light and airy.
The shop fronts are all to an almost identical design and are lightly framed in a rich mahogany or similarly coloured wood. They project slightly forwards into the arcade, with large bowed windows and are quite exquisite. Above each and elsewhere in the arcade are panels of decorative coloured tiles depicting peacocks and flowers, manufactured by Doulton and designed by the ceramic sculptor W. J. Neatby, perhaps best known for the tiles in Harrods food hall in London. The hanging lanterns and flooring are new, dating from the extensive restoration of the Arcade in the late 1980s.
At the far end of the Arcade, and over the entrance from that end, is a large semicircular window, glazed with a mosaic in stained glass depicting trees and birds. On leaving the Arcade here and looking back one is confronted by a most spectacular façade, which extends to the properties to either side, with more tiles and the aforementioned window, all topped by an angel with wings reaching to the sky. Just inside the arcade from the Gentleman's Walk entrance is Langley's toy shop, which has had a presence in the arcade, though originally as Galpins, ever since the arcade opened in 1899.
In medieval times the importance of Norwich as a provincial centre had been assured, in large part due to the prosperity brought by the textile trade in and around the city. The road at the lower end of the marketplace was then known as Nether Row and was a natural location for the fine houses and coaching inns which were built as a result of this trade. By Georgian times the city had become a fashionable shopping destination, and there were at least four such inns, together with shops selling luxury goods, along this side of the market, which by now had been renamed as Gentleman's Walk. The inns had long yards to the rear, leading to a street aptly named as Back of the Inns, with stables to accommodate the changes of horses for the stagecoaches. The largest of the inns was the Angel, possibly dating back to the fifteenth century or even earlier. The Angel was not only a coaching inn but also served as a venue for public meetings, the local headquarters of the Whig party, and a place of lively entertainment.
In 1840 the Angel was sold, renamed the Royal Hotel in celebration of the marriage of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert, and refurbished ‘with every convenience for the reception of families and commercial gentlemen’. By this time the era of travel by stagecoach was almost at an end. The arrival of the railways had reduced the travel time between Norwich and London from fourteen hours to only a fraction of that and, in early 1846, the Norfolk Chronicle announced that ‘All the coaches between Norwich and London have ceased to run’. In that same year a new frontage was built to the Royal, and the hotel remained in business there until 1897, when it moved to newly built premises at Bank Plain, closer to the main railway station. It was on the site of the old hotel and its yard that the Royal Arcade was opened just two years later. The hotel's frontage was retained and still serves as the entrance to the arcade from Gentleman's Walk.' [Notes from]

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 30   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 31
Royal Arcade, Conservative Club entrance (Gentleman's Walk end).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 33    Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 32
13 Chapel Field North:
St Mary’s Croft, overlooking Chapefield Gardens. This house is Listed Grade II: ‘Late 19th century red brick and pantile, two storeys and attic. Three bays with smaller recessed central bay. Important example of Tudor Revival. Moulded assymetrical porch with curvilinear gable and finials. Mullion and transom windows with hoodmoulds. String courses made of moulded brick panels. Decorative saw tooth cornice. Second floor attic verandahs in outer bays with primitive carved posts. Central dormer with curvilinear gable; these gables also at ends of house with stacks. Verandahs have hipped tile hung roofs with pinnacles.’
St Mary's Croft was built by Captain Crowe in 1881, incorporating the walls of an earlier building. It stands out because of the two 2nd floor verandahs with carved cornerposts, low balustrading and hipped tile-hung roofs with pinnacles. The boundary walls and railings of this property are also Listed. The deep carving of the relief capitals on the name plaque has resulted in the downstroke of the 'N' to become detached; it is still a fine decorative piece of lettering.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 34
   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 36
Watts Court. Fire Point plate, ‘No. 27; FP; 7ft 6in’. Entrance to ‘WATTS COURT.’ by 11 Chapel Field. Above right: Watts Court, the passage.
 Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 37   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 38
66 Bethel Street: ‘TURRET COTTAGE’. Listed Grade II: 'Former house now office. Early C19. Red brick painted on west facade. Pantile roof. Corner site. 3 storeys plus semi-basement. Single bay. Door in west elevation with semi-circular fanlight and wrought-iron trellis-work porch. Sash windows with glazing bars and rubbed brick flat arches in Bethel Street elevation. Fascia cornice.'
The degraded capital letters are painted on a white background following the course of the brickwork.
The state of the side wall suggests that another property occupied the space to the left.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 39   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 40
'St Giles Terrace', Bethel Street: arched entry with name tablet above. Tucked away behind the buildings on its north side of Bethel Street is a row of town houses known as St Giles Terrace, built during the early part of the 19th century. Facing west, its grey brick facade was designed with a series of five brick pilasters supporting a shallow stone pediment above a plain architrave.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 41   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 42
30 Bethel Street: The Old Fire Station. Now Sir Isaac Newton Sixth Form College. At a higher level is an Art Deco stone feature with the Norwich City coat of arms (castle with rampant lion below on a shield) and the date ‘AD [below the shield] 1934’.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 43
Gaol Hill: Drinking fountain, east end of Guildhall. ‘1859; presented by Charles P. Melly; Above: ‘C.M.’ [Charles Melly]; ’S.R.’ [Salve Regina: 'God save the Queen'].
The panels with shields are worn but the coats of arms on the right can be made out as those of the City. The drinking fountain is also badly worn. The decorative fountain has a mock-Gothic architectural frame and the red granite drinking trough is supported on a twisted all'antica or early Christian column. This is very much more elaborate than the simple granite fountains which Melly had provided for Liverpool, discussed below. It may have been designed by Robert Kerr, the architect responsible for the clock tower of 1850.
The provision of a drinking fountain fits with the Victorian response to the discovery in 1854 by John Snow (1813-1858) that cholera was spread by contaminated drinking water, and with a philanthropical movement initiated by Charles Pierre Melly (1829-1888). Melly was born in in Tuebrook (a suburb of Liverpool), to a Swiss father from Geneva, who had gained English citizenship. Charles Melly became a cotton merchant in Liverpool & Manchester, an officer in the Childwall Rifles and a philanthropist. He was involved in planning Sefton Park, Liverpool, having persuaded Lord Derby to donate land. He founded the North East Mission; the first night school, in Beaufort Street; and the Liverpool Gymnasium, in Myrtle Street. Concerned for Liverpool’s poor, he provided free playgrounds for children and benches for the elderly, and, having seen the difficulties of the lamplighters, he introduced a system he had seen in Geneva, replacing ladders with long poles. In 1852, having been told of the dock workers’ and immigrants’ need for fresh drinking water - their only alternative being the public house - he proposed the provision of free drinking fountains, based on those in Geneva. Initially, he set up a number of taps near the docks, providing fresh water, but these proved so popular (on one occasion, in a 12 hour period, they were used by not less than 2336 people!) that they wore out in two years. In 1854, at the south end of Princes Dock, Melly set up the first red granite fountain, and by 1858 he had supplied Liverpool with 43 fountains, with water spouts including lions’, tigers’ and satyrs’ heads, and all at a cost of £10 each. Attached to dock walls, church walls, railway station buildings and bridges, and other places where they would be most useful for the poor. Melly’s fame spread, and a paper which he presented to the Liverpool meeting of the national Association for the Promotion of Social Science in 1858, outlining his work in the city, was taken up by Samuel Gurney MP (1813-1882) a nephew of the Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry, MP for Penryn, 1857-65, and a founder of the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain & Cattle Trough Association. Although Gurney lived in Surrey and at Regent's Park he was one of the members of the Norwich based Overend and Gurney Bank not to have been damaged by their crash in 1866, a connection which may have prompted Melly to have presented one of his drinking fountains to Norwich and may explain its prominent position at the east end of the Guildhall, still the City's town hall. The need for the fountain is a further indication of the decline of the city's once great textile business, which by the 1850s had failed to keep up with Manchester in the use of the power looms. This resulted in large-scale unemployment and unrest among the city’s weavers, compounded by the appalling quality of the water, noted in a report for the General Board of Health in 1851. The Wensum was 'thoroughly and irremediably' polluted with domestic and industrial waste, although piped water had become available following the establishment of a new water company in 1850. Following Melly's example Samuel Gurney set up London’s first fountain on the wall of St Sepulchre, Holburn in 1859. Melly's example and Snow's discovery of the link between contaminated water and cholera was to result in widespread commissions for fountains and water pumps, including in Norwich the Gurney obelisk of 1860 on Tombland (designed by John Bell) and that endowed by Sir John Boileau in 1869 for the Newmarket and Ipswich roads. [Information from the Norfolk & Suffolk Public Sculpture database (see Links)]

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 44   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 45
Above left: Gaol Hill, Guildhall. Plaque at the upper right of the Melly drinking fountain, east end. ‘Thomas Bilney, 1495-1531, First Protestant Martyr Imprisoned in the vault below prior to execution by burning at Lollards Pit on, 19 August 1531’. Lollards Pit was on Riverside Road, occupied today by the Bridge House public house. Bilney was a well-known preacher against idolatry; at Ipswich, he denounced pilgrimages to popular shrines like Our Lady of Walsingham and warned of the worthlessness of prayers to the saints – he was pulled from the pulpit of St George’s Chapel by some members of the congregation.
Thomas Bilney, a Norfolk man born near Dereham, was a Cambridge academic. Like the Lollard priest William White before him, he was convinced that the Church had to be reformed. Arrested, and taken before Cardinal Wolsey, he recanted denied his beliefs. But, characteristic of many who recanted when initially faced with execution, he began preaching heresy in the streets and fields. Bishop Nix of Norwich had him arrested, and this time there was no mercy. Like other heretics Bilney was tried by the Church, but given to the agents of the State for execution. ‘Good people, I am come here to die’, declared Bilney as he stood at the stake. []
Bilney appears again in our Ipswich pages about the Chapel of St George in St Georges Street.

Above right:
Gaol Hill, Guildhall.  ‘NORWICH CHIEF CONSTABLE’. Over a window to the left of the Melly drinking fountain. The Guildhall is not just one of the finest buildings in the city, it is one of the best of its kind in the land, but one which has been neglected over the centuries. It is the largest and most elaborate medieval city hall outside London, reflecting Norwich’s status as one of England’s wealthiest and most powerful cities. For hundreds of years this was where the people who controlled the city met in their grand council chamber, where those in trouble stood in the dock, and where prisoners were held in both an open jail and dungeons before being put to death, tortured or sent to the other side of the world. It was constructed between 1407 and 1413 and served as the seat of city government (also court and gaol) from the early 15th century until 1938, when it was replaced by the newly built City Hall. At the time of the building's construction and for much of its history Norwich was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in England, and today the Guildhall is the largest surviving medieval civic building in the country outside London. Magistrates' Courts continued to be held in the old Common Council Chamber until 1977 and prisoners were held in the building until 1980. Clearly the Chief Constable had his offices at the Guildhall, too.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 48
Gaol Hill, Guildhall Clock tower. This grand stonework bears two angels holding the City coat of arms with, on a scroll at the top, the date ‘1850’. The fine gold on grey-blue clock face has lettering below it: SOLA VIRTUS … INVICTA’ [Virtue alone cannot be conquered]; ‘HENRY WOODCOCK MAYOR’ in Gothic script.
New council chamber, 1536, clock tower 1850.  Norwich had been granted its first Charter of Incorporation in 1404, giving it the status of a city and the right to elect its own mayor, collect its own taxes and hold its own Courts of Law. The Guildhall was built from 1407-53 to house the courts together with the prisoners, as well as offices for raising taxes, the civic regalia and the civic officials. With three major chambers it was larger than any comparable contemporary civic building. When the roof of the mayoral council chamber collapsed in 1511 repair and rebuilding could be put off until 1535-1537. The new chamber’s eastern façade provided the building’s major view, now partially blocked behind a taxi rank. It was decorated with chequerboard flushwork and a large window, which was set over decorative panels displaying coats of arms. As with other contemporary schemes, the entrance to Cardinal Wolsey’ College in Ipswich and Hengrave Hall, the place of honour in the centre was reserved for those of Henry VIII. They were flanked to the right by those of the city, still just visible - a castle over a lion supported by armed angels – and on the left the Guild of St. George, under a helmet. The heraldry was reflected in the four lights of the east window and served to underline the importance of the Norwich guild of St. George. Granted a royal charter in 1417 from 1452 the guild had been closely linked with the government of the city, with each retiring mayor as the alderman (head) of the guild. The base of the clock turret is dated 1850 and supported by angels holding the city’s coat of arms. The gilded inscription at its base reads HENRY WOODCOCK, MAYOR and on the base of the clock SOLA VIRTUS INVICTA (Virtue alone cannot be conquered), the motto of the Dukes of Norfolk, the premier dukes who, in spite of their title, had no connection with Norfolk.
The elegant arched spire, apparently rebuilt before 1935, marked out the east end of the Guildhall from the surrounding late Victorian buildings and the market, before construction of the present City Hall. Henry Woodcock (1789-1879) was mayor for 1849-1851. On the 17th April 1850 he offered to provide an illuminated clock ant turret, on condition that the Corporation removed the false ceiling in the Council Chamber in the Guildhall and laid open the new roof. By 2008 both the iron support for the clock and its stone housing needed repair, undertaken from July 2010 by Universal Stone and completed in December 2011. The deterioration of the stone was worse than had been expected so that the stone casing had to be removed completely before restoration could begin in summer 2011.
[Information from the Norfolk & Suffolk Public Sculpture database (see Links)]

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 47
9 Guildhall Hill: street nameplate above shopfront. A variant to the other rectilinear cartouche-style, cast iron nameplates in Norwich with more conventional curved quadrants taken out of each corner. A heritage information plaque has been mounted beneath it.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 46
Between 7 and 8 Guildhall Hill: ‘Woburn Centre’ entrance. One of the courts and yards of old Norwich, often associated with inns. Woburn Court is now occupied by eating and drinking establishments. See also the 'Library' lettering at 4a Guildhall Hill (below).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 112   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 113
4A Guildhall Hill: ‘LIBRARY’ carved into stone cornice.  The Norfolk and Norwich Subscription Library was formed in 1886. The original subscription rate was £1 for ladies over 18 and £2 for men. Fueled by voluntary subscriptions, the building possessed many volumes of great value. In 1898, during the August Bank Holiday weekend, a fire broke out in nearby Dove Street. The fire quickly spread to the Library and within an hour the entire building was gutted and most of its contents were destroyed. The building was later restored at the cost of £1,719 and re-opened in 1914. The Library was indeed, the first public subscription library in the UK and is a Listed building which has been brought to life, sympathetically converted into a modern contemporary restaurant that incorporates the historical features seamlessly.
Listed Grade II: 'Former library, now Court Office and Shops. 1837 by J.T. Patience. Yellow brick with masonry dressings, Slate roofs, Recessed block with long wings returning to the street-line having 4- and 2-bay fronts. 2 storeys. Single wide bay. Central double-door with tetrastyle Greek Doric portico with pediment. 3 steps up. The portico frieze returns to become stringcourse on the facade supported by pilasters. The centre of the facade projects with one sash window with glazing bars and eared surround. 4 first-floor pilasters. Triple frieze-cornice, the centre one displaying 'Library'. Pediment. Wings:- 3 storeys plus semi-basement, 11 bays, the centre 4 recessed. Sash windows throughout with glazing bars and rubbed brick flat arches. Masonry bands at ground and first floor. Parapet. C19 and C20 altered shopfronts returning 3 bays along the wings. Carriage entry at extreme left-hand side of street facades, C19 fascia between consoles above left-hand shopfront. Corner and central pilasters. The shopfront to the right of the carriage entry has a triglyph frieze extending across from No. 1 Guildhall Hill. Decorative ironwork balustrading above frieze. Sash windows throughout with glazing bars and rubbed brick flat arches at first floor. Second floor windows beneath cornice.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 49
'St John Maddermarket' street nameplate – near the crossroads with Pottergate, Dove Street and Lobster Lane. Also Fire Point (water hydrant) plate: ‘No. 67; FP; 4ft 3in’. The street name dates to the early 15th century when the Guildhall was built and Maddermarket was the centre of the dyeing trade, madder being a red pigment obtained from the root of the Eurasian madder plant.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 50   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 51   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 52
‘School Lane.’ street nameplate and boundary marker plaque. This passageway runs between Bedford Street (at the rear of Jarrolds store) and Exchange Street (between Exchange Street Buildings – included below – and no. 33) and is clearly signed at each end, yet it doesn’t appear on modern maps. Note the unnecessary full stop. The nearby plaque reads: ‘X; S.A; 1832’ and is a parish boundary marker for the Church of St Andrew which is situated nearby on the junction of St Andrews Street and St Andrews Hill. To avoid risking damage to the nameplate and sign during removal and reattachment, a modern cement render has been built up around the signs.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 53
Corner of Bedford Street and Swan Lane: Architectural photograph. Fabric Warehouse (now Turtle Bay). Note: Fire Point plate just visible next to first floor window on Bedford Street elevation.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 54   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 55
Bridewell Museum, Bridewell Alley: William Appleyard memorial tablet.
William Appleyard was three times Sheriff and five times City Mayor. William was the first Mayor of the City after it became a shire incorporate in 1404. He owned lots of property in the city and inherited from his father the house that now incorporates the Bridewell Museum, famed for it’s finely-cut black flint bricks. William presented the city with a great tree to aid with building the new Guildhall. He also owned a lot of land to the south of the city, including Intwood, Bracon Ash and Hethel. His father was given the rather odd responsibility of providing the King with 224 herring pasties whenever he visited the region.
Around 1325 a wealthy merchant named Geoffrey de Salle built a house here, near the Church of St Andrew. In 1386 the house was enlarged by William Appleyard, who went on to become the first mayor of Norwich (1403-1435). Very little of the original 14th century building survives, save the flintwork facade facing the narrow lane linking Bridewell Alley and St Andrews Hill (both still paved with setts). This is one of the earliest and finest examples of secular East Anglian flintwork in England. Under the building is another 14th century survival: the vaulted undercroft, used for storage and to hold inmates when the house became a prison. Bridewell Prison was established here in 1585 and was named after the London prison of the same name which was built near St Bride’s Well. The Bridewell must have been a very desirable property, as by the 16th century it was owned by another Mayor of Norwich, Robert Gardener. Then in 1580 it was sold to the Corporation of Norwich by John Sotherton. The Corporation had a problem: the city was bursting with transient beggars and poor residents, drawn by Norwich's reputation as a bustling centre of commerce. But these beggars and poor people relied on the city for charity.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 56   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 57
Corner of Princes Street and Elm Hill: Building decorated with boundary marker-plates.  The plates are fixed to brickwork at first floor level; note the crow-steps on the gable above.
The plates read:
‘X; S A; 1813’ [parish of St Andrew]
‘X; S A; 1832’ [parish of St Andrew]
‘H; S P; 1814’ [parish of St Peter Hungate]
‘H; S P; 1834’ [parish of St Peter Hungate].
N.B.: other small collections of boundary marker-plates can be seen on buildings further down Elm Hill, presumably collected by the residents during changes to or demolition of the original bearers of the markers.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 58   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 60
Above left: Princes Street (opposite 56-57 building). Wall-mounted gas lamp (now converted to electricity) with number ‘2073’ stencilled on white-painted brick below.

Above right: Elm Hill. Wall-mounted gas lamp on corner house at the top of Elm Hill (now a café). The number ‘2049’ is stencilled on the lower body of the lamp; situated next to the ‘ELM HILL’ street nameplate. Both examples appear to have been replaced since the photographs were taken in 2013 by larger lamps with amber-coloured opaque glass. Numbers are ‘2’ and ‘1’ respectively with new numbers stuck on the bottom of the front glass panel. Do they look as good/authentic?

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 61   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 62
Princes Street United Reform Church. The extravagantly decorated arched entrance at the centre of the palladian facade features subtly-serif’d capital letters floating over the carved floral features: ‘ENTER INTO HIS COURT WITH PRAISE’ (a version of Psalm 100:4 KJV: ‘Enter into his gates with thanksgiving’). The white brick frontage features pilasters with equally extravagant Corinthian capitals below the cornice. Two more of the street lanterns project from the side pilasters.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 64   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 63
Plumbers Arms Alley, 20 Princes Street. Runs into Waggon & Horses Lane (named after the former inn of the same name). The alley is named after the Plumbers Arms public house which used to be located here, with the first recorded licensee having been Margaret Dawson in 1822. Two more examples of numbered, wall-mounted gas lamps are visible.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 66   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 65
7 Tombland: the Edith Cavell public house. Frosted door decoration (probably modern adhesive vinyl?): ‘BOTTLE AND JUG ENTRANCE; THE EDITH CAVELL’. The colour scheme has since changed.
Beside the Erpingham Gate in Tombland is a monument to Edith Cavell, who was born just outside the city of Norwich. Cavell is famous for her role in helping allied servicemen to escape from occupied Belgium during World War I. She was eventually discovered and shot, but later brought to Norwich Cathedral for burial.
Scroll down for other examples in Tombland (The Augustine Steward House, The Maids Head Hotel).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 67   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 67a
24 Tombland: 'ST ETHELBERTS' lettered below the second storey window of the central gable. Named after the St Ethelbert’s Gate in nearby Queen Street. This gate to the Cathedral Close dates from c.1316. St Ethelberts House, Tombland: This is a swagger Arts-and-Crafts style house of 1888, with a welter of mullions and transoms, coving and gables.
Listed Grade II: 'Former use unknown, now restaurant and club. 1888 on plaque by E.P. Wilkins [to the right]. Red brick and rendered. Hung and plain-tiles. 2 storeys plus attic. Symmetrical bays plus one bay. Central door with hood on consoles and large shell moulding. Yard entry at extreme left with open pediment. Circular windows with scrolled and pedimented surrounds and 6-light mullion and transome windows at ground floor. First floor dentil stringcourse across 4 bays. Oriel windows at first floor with swags between. Coved cornice and decorated parapet. 3 large dormer gables with casement windows: bargeboards with finial in outer bays and central dormer with pediment. Mansard roof with decorated tiles. Single right-hand bay:- door at extreme right with moulded stone surround and broken pediment. 2 mullion and transome windows at ground floor. Canted first floor window with brick pediment and apron . Dutch gable. 5 lamp posts in front of facade.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 69   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 68
Redwell Street: ‘Forget Me Not, 1827’ clockface, St Michael-At-Plea Church. 14th century church with a rather distressed clockface; it looks as if the four studs are made of iron and rust stains are evident. The red background was probably a richer. deeper red, similar to that used on the information board below it. The sign over the entrance door reads 'SHOP & CAFE'.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 70
3-7 Redwell Street: Clement Court. Plaque on modern clock: ‘Near this spot on 6th September 1701 Frances Burges published the first number of The Norwich Post, the first English newspaper’. City arms at the top; horn-blowing rider on horseback at the bottom of the plaque. The building is now Francis House, part of Norwich University of the Arts.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 71   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 83
5 Orford Hill/Red Lion Street,
Bell Hotel. Large capitals in relief at the top of the building ‘BELL HOTEL’ with projecting half-bell (Orford Hill: Santander branch). Large capitals in relief at the top of the building ‘BELL HOTEL’ with half-bell and clock above on angled wall (Red Lion Street: Wetherspoon’s pub).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 73
Junction of Red Lion Street with Farmers Avenue and Castle Meadow (opposite the Bell Hotel). ‘YORK HOUSE.’ in capitals with a superfluous full stop in panel in gable. York House once used to be a pub known as the 'York Tavern' in 1884. From 1760 until 1807 it had been called the 'City of York' or 'York City'. By 1840 it was a shop but apparently became a pub once again which was finally closed in April 1964.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 74
Norwich Castle plaque: ‘In 1549 AD Robert Kett yeoman farmer of Wymondham was executed by hanging in this castle after the defeat of the Norfolk Rebellion of which he was the leader In 1949 AD - four hundred years later - this memorial was placed here by the citizens of Norwich in reparation and honour to a notable and courageous leader in the long struggle of the common people of England to escape from a servile life into the freedom of just conditions’. Sited beside the main visitor entrance.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 75   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 76
5 Orford Street: ‘ORFORD Place, 1809’ plaque. The date numerals are placed in each corner; it looks as if the plaque was white and has been painted in a slapdash manner with a terra cotta colour.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 77
8 Orford Hill. Architectural photograph: sculpture of a large stag at roof level (a former inn?).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 78   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 79   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 78a
5 Red Lion Street (formerly Loose’s cook shop). Above the arched carriage entrance: ‘SHOEING; FORGE; LIVERY; STABLE’ in metal characters attached to the stone. On the decorative gable (5th storey) brickwork: ‘1902’ in large, separated metal characters. Presumably an old coaching inn?

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 80   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 81   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 82
23-25 Red Lion Street: 'ANCHOR BUILDINGS'. Roundels in pediments to side inscribed with intertwined ‘BS’ monogram (for Bullard and Sons, brewers). In cartouche set in central pediment an anchor and chain with rocks a version of the brewery emblem from 1868 on display at Bullard’s Anchor Brewery on Anchor Quay. The street was widened and rebuilt from 1900 onwards. The Anchor buildings were built by Bullards with the Orford Arms in the left hand building. The Orford Arms (a Bullards pub) had been on the site since at least 1865. William Grix was the licensee from 1900-1905. The last licensee was recorded in 1937.
The monogram bears a striking resemblance to the design of that used by Norwich brewer Steward & Patteson Ltd (as seen on Uncle Tom’s Cabin in Ipswich).

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 84   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 85   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 84a
11 Haymarket: ‘LAMB INN’ in ceramic tiling. Dated 1902 and apparently designed by George Skipper, architect of the Royal Arcade and the London And Provincial Bank, in London Street (see both, above). The Baroque flourishes make that seem entirely plausible. Clad in an eclectic mix of coloured faience and stone. Reputed to be the best building in Norwich not to be Listed (it is on the city council's Local list).  The Art Nouveau lettering fits the date of the building. The name The Lamb takes the pub back to its 13th century origins when it was known as the Holy Lamb. The pub building in Lamb Yard is dated late 18th century.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 86   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 87
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 88   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 89
16 Gentlemans Walk, Lloyds Bank building. Listed Grade II: ’1924 by H. Munro Cautley and extended into Davey Place in 1925. Stone. Slate and flat roofs. Corner site. 6 major bays, one minor bay to left and corner bay to right. Corner and end entrances with bolection bead and rod surround and lintol with figure-head keystone supported on scrolls. Above the lintel is a cartouche supported by putti. The ground floor has metal casement windows with margin lights and flat arches having bead and rod decoration. Recessed panels beneath the semi-circular arched first floor windows: scrolled keystones and festoons in the spandrels. Square casement windows at top floor. Glazing bars throughout. Heavy panelled pilasters dividing the bays with simple frieze between first and second floors. Ziggurat cornice with lion masks and fascia motif. Rusticated hollow chamfer surrounds to windows above passage.’
The attached metal characters above second storey level read ‘LLOYDS BANK LIMITED’ (shortened to ‘LLOYDS BANK’ on the 45 degree-angle entance). Stone lettering is cut in relief: ’LLOYDS BANK’ appears twice on the Gentlemans Walk elevation below the ground floor windows and once on the entrance below the cartouche. ‘LLOYDS BANK LIMITED’ runs down the Davey Place elevation. The monogram ‘LB’ is in a circle on the upper pediment of the entrance, with ‘LLOYDS CHAMBERS’ in metal characters above the side entrance.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 91   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 92
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 93 to 96
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 99   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 98
Corner of Exchange Street and London Street: Jarrolds store. ‘JARROLDS’ moulded into the curved frontage at first floor level. Along Exchange Street above the ground floor windows: ‘JARROLDS; BOOKSELLERS; BOOKSELLERS; STATIONERS; JARROLDS (repeated). Pillasters at second floor level bear decorative open book motifs with cartouches bearing the names: ‘GLADMAN’, ‘BREWER’, ‘JOKAI’, ‘MARSHALL’, ‘SEWELL’, ‘FARNELL’, ‘SPILLING’. The spandrells around the semicircular windows at first floor level bear ‘J’ and ‘L’ (for Jarrolds Ltd) intertwined with olives, leaves and scrollwork then oak leaves, acorns and scrollwork, respectively. Once again, this is the work of architect George Skipper, creator of the Royal Arcade. The shop has been well described by Stefan Muthesius: 'Skipper provides a most sophisticated reflection on a problem which had bothered designers for many decades. Ever since progress made possible large sheets of glass, store windows were made as large as possible to display the goods inside and to let the light in. But such a shop front might look flimsy. By way of a complex series of supports, Skipper gives the impression of reasonably eighty construction, while still getting across that we are looking and into a department store. Lastly, its delicacy and relatively modest overall size were meant to distinguish form the largish and squarish factory piles.’ Skipper adapted the classical orders setting Ionic above the more manly Doric. Ionic was appropriate for the upper part, since it was traditionally linked with wisdom and so celebrated the firm's connection with books since the names inscribed in the cartouches (as noted by Jolley) are of authors published by Jarrolds. The following illustrative list (all published by Jarrolds of London) was compiled from the Abebooks website: Dr C. Brewer: History of France: political, social and literary history to 1874, (n.d); F.J. Gladman: School work; I. Control and teaching; II. Organization & principles of education, 1886;  Maurus Jokai: Green Book or Freedom under the Snow, 1897; Saunders Marshall: Beautiful Joe, 1907; Mary Sewell (mother of Anna): a number of books including Mother's Last Words; James Spilling: Giles’ trip to London, 1872; Wm Keeling Farnell: School steps and self instructor’s ladder to arithmetic, grammar and geography, 1857 [Notes from the Norfolk & Suffolk Public Sculpture website, see Links.]

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 101   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 101a
35-37 Exchange Street: ‘EXCHANGE ST BUILDINGS, 1906’ (beside entrance to School Lane, see 50-52). Listed Grade II: ‘Early C19 with 1906 doorcase. Red brick with rendered detail. Roof not visible. 3 storeys. 4 bays. Right-hand off-centre recessed door with attached Corinthian [sic: surely they're Ionic capitals?] columns supporting open segmental pediment. Scrolled and eared window surround above door. Sash windows throughout with glazing bars except in ground floor bottom sashes. Egg and dart stringcourse between first and second floors. Box cornice.’

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 102   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 103
30 St Benedicts Street: 'WALKERS STORES'. The name in white characters on bottle green background is shown vertically in ceramic tiling shop surround to the left and the right.
What did Walkers Stores originally sell? It has the look of a grocery shop.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 104   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 105
58 St Benedicts Street: The Plough and Little Plough Yard. Two decorative ovals in the stucco at first floor level carry a depiction of a hand-plough and ‘ALES STOUT WINE SPIRITS’. ‘LITTLE PLOUGH YARD’ is signed above a passage entrance to the left.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 1o7   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 107a
14 Tombland: the plaque reads ‘THIS HOUSE purchased and preserved in 1924 by the Norfolk Archaeological Trust was built AUGUSTINE STEWARD, Mercer, Sheriff 1526, Mayor 1534,1546 and 1556, Burgess in Parliament 1547.’ On an excellent example of a Tudor merchant’s house, the rear accessed via ‘TOMBLAND ALLEY’ (signed above the entrance). On a corner stone above this entry is the date ‘1549’ and Steward's merchant's mark, along with the mercer's gild insignia. The movements in the timber-framed building over time have resulted in some squeezed and skewed windows at second storey level – it must be difficult to fit repalcement glass panes.
The name 'Tombland' sounds as if it is derived from some long-lost burial ground, situated as it is near the gates to the Norman Cathedral, with the medieval Church of St Michael – the largest in Norwich. However, the name comes from two Old English words meaning 'open ground', or an empty space. This open ground was used as the main market place for Norwich; the hub of commercial activity and town life; also for fairs. The rhythms of markets and fairs in the calendar were of economic, social – and sometimes political – importance to inhabitants and visitors alike.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 107b   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 107c
20 Tombland: The Maids Head Hotel.  The hotel dates from the 13th century and is amalgamation of at least six buildings. The main façade faces on to the intersection of three streets, Tombland (see the derivation above), Wensum Street (named after the local river) and Palace Street (presumably because in this area was the palace of the Earl of East Anglia). The Maids Head Bar features Jacobean Oak panelling and has been reputedly, frequented by guests such as Horatio Nelson and Edith Cavell. Queen Elizabeth I was said to have slept at the hotel in 1587. The large terra cotta panel features three gothic arches with Tudor roses and the somewhat eccentric lettering: 'ye Maid's Head Hotel.' in a version of medieval script; the damage to the "d's" bears comparison with the name plaque of 'St Mary’s Croft', 13 Chapel Field North (shown above).
Listed Grade II: ‘Former uses unknown, now hotel. C15 cellars. C16 onwards with major facade alteration in the early C20. Red brick. Rendered. Timber-frame. Pantiles and plain tiles. The complex is an amalgamation of at least 6 buildings, Tombland facade:- 2 storeys, 3 storeys to the left, 4 bays extended to the left by 2 bays plus comer bays. Central C20 4-door hotel entrance with flat hood. Door at extreme right with round arch and attached columns supporting an open pediment. 4 steps up. Sash windows in right-hand 4 bays with glazing bars and rubbed brick flat arches. C20 casement windows above central entry. Paired bracket cornice below parapet. 4 flat-roof dormers. 3-storied early C20 bay and corner bay extending into Wensum Street:- Door with moulded timber surround. Casement windows throughout, corner and right- side oriels with gables above. The top floor has pseudo-timber framing. 3 builds in Wensum Street:- 2 and 3-storeys, jetties and carriage entry to the north of the middle range.’

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 108   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 109
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 110   Ipswich Historic Lettering: Norwich 111
8 Surrey Street: ‘NORWICH UNION LIFE INSURANCE SOCIETY’ sits in relief on the cornice of the Palladian facade of a grand stone palace of insurance, now called Aviva (the rename Norwich Union). The company's offices in Surrey Street, known as ‘Bignold House’ (named after Thomas Bignold, founder of the company), were built as a private house for the Patteson family. Rooms in the house were heated by fireplaces, some of which were designed by Sir John Soane, and clerks were expected to bring in a pound of coal for each day they worked during cold periods. If, during the course of the day, they felt chilly, despite having provided the fuel, they were not allowed to tend the fire, or indeed warm themselves. If they did so, they were fined. This draconian rule, reminiscent of Ebeneezer Scrooge and Bob Cratchit, was later relaxed and employees were allowed to warm themselves, but only one at a time, and they still weren't allowed to tend the fire. Near life-size statues stand in niches on the pavement level of: ‘Rt. Revd. Willaim Talbot DD, Bishop of Oxford, a founder of the Amicable Society’ and ‘Sir Samuel Bignold Kt., Secretary Norwich Union Life Office, 1815-1875.’

There are about 1,500 listed buildings in Norwich:
60 are Listed Grade I,
127 are Listed Grade II*.
There are 31 medieval churches (more than Ipswich, York and Bristol put together); Norwich is said to have more standing medieval churches than any city north of the Alps.

Just for comparison, in April 2016 Ipswich had about 711 Listed buildings:-
11 Listed Grade I,
23 Listed Grade II*,
677 Listed Grade II.
Ipswich has twelve medieval churches in the town centre (13 within the Borough boundary, including the Church of St Mary & St Botolph in Whitton).

Please email any comments and contributions by clicking here.
Search Ipswich Historic Lettering
©2004 Copyright throughout the Ipswich Historic Lettering site: Borin Van Loon
No reproduction of text or images without express written permission