Timelines / Architectural styles
See also our Grand Ipswich timeline for two thousand years of the town's history;
Ipswich invasions timeline to see all the raiders and invaders who attacked Ipswich throughout its history;
also the Christchurch/Holy Trinity Priory timeline, the Wolsey's College timeline and the
Public transport in Ipswich timeline.

Commonly used terms for periods of English history
Ipswich Historic Lettering: era timeline 3
The Western Roman Empire began under Diocletian in AD 285 and was periodically abolished and recreated for the next two centuries until final abolishment by the Byzantine emperor Zeno in AD 480.
The Anglo-Saxon period lasted for 600 years, from 410 to 1066. This can be broken down into: Early Anglo-Saxon period (410–660), Middle Anglo-Saxon
period (660–899), Late Anglo-Saxon period (899–1066). Some people's shorthand refers to 'Middle Saxon period', for example, but we cleave to the full expression to avoid confusion. Ipswich was the first Anglo-Saxon town. Following the Norman Conquest in 1066 Anglo-Saxon nobility were either exiled or joined the ranks of the peasantry.
The Middle Ages of Western Europe are commonly dated from the end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until the rise of national monarchies, the start of European overseas exploration, the humanist revival, and the Protestant Reformation starting in 1517 (see below).
1.  The Early Middle Ages —From the fall of Rome in AD 476. To avoid undue emphasis on exact years, the date is usually rounded off and the period stated as AD 500-1000 or from the 5th to the 10th centuries. The Early Middle Ages includes the Migration period (also referred to as the "Dark Ages" the Early Middle Ages c. 5th–10th century), the Ostrogoths and Visigoths, the Merovingians, Anglo-Saxon England, the Frankish Empire and the Viking Age.
2.  The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (AD 1000–1300) while recognizable nations were forming.
3.  The Late Middle Ages generally describes the period of the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1300–1500) leading up to the Early Modern period or era; see also Early Modern Europe. Broadly, medieval is an adjective applied to The Middle Ages.
Note that the word 'medieval' is sometimes bandied around and can cause confusion.  Some have applied it in Britain to the period from 1066 (Norman Conquest) to 1666 (the Great Fire of London). The word medieval has its origins in the Latin term medium aevum ("middle age"), and first came into use in the 19th century, although the idea of a middle age had been around for several hundred years. At that time, scholars considered the medieval period to follow the fall of the Roman Empire and precede the Renaissance. This medieval era had long been ignored as unimportant compared to the time periods it bridged. Clearly, exact dates for named eras can be challenged and transitions are fluid, depending on which historian one consults.

The Renaissance
was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
The Early Modern Period spans the period after the late portion of the Middle Ages (c. 1500) through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800).
The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants (against Roman Catholic orthodoxy). The date most usually given for the start of the Protestant Reformation is 1517, when Martin Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and for its conclusion in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia that ended the European wars of religion. The separation of the Church of England (or Anglican Church) from Rome under Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1537, brought England alongside this broad Reformation movement; however, religious changes in the English national church proceeded more conservatively than elsewhere in Europe. Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for centuries, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions.
The Industrial Revolution in Britain is described as a period from 1750 to 1850 when technological innovation, mechanisation, new work practices (often at the expense of the poorest in society), the growth of huge industrial cities and other changes led to the dominance of the seaways and colonisation of foreign lands, enslavement of workforces and the establishment of The British Empire under Queen Victoria (reigned 1837-1901). However, many might argue that 'The Industrial Revolution' continued for decades after 1850 and has, only in the late 20th century, been replaced by 'The Digital Revolution' which continues...

Ipswich Historic Lettering: moanarchs timeline 1
Ipswich Historic Lettering: monarchs timeline 2
Architectural styles/periods
Bandying around terms such as 'Palladian' and 'Gothic' is all well and good, but what do the architectural and design styles and eras mean; what period do they refer to? This list will undoubtedly grow...
Ipswich Historic Lettering: Queen Anne house
The Queen Anne style in Britain refers to either the English Baroque architectural style approximately of the reign of Queen Anne (reigned 1702 to 1714), or a revived form that was popular in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century (when it is also known as Queen Anne revival). In British architecture the term is mostly used of domestic buildings up to the size of a manor house, and usually designed elegantly but simply by local builders or architects, rather than the grand palaces of noble magnates.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Georgian house

The Georgian era of British history is a period which takes its name from, and is normally defined as spanning the reigns of the first four Hanoverian kings of Great Britain who were all named George: George I, George II, George III and George IV. The era covers the period from 1714 to 1830, with the sub-period of the Regency defined by the Regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III. The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837. The last Hanoverian monarch of Great Britain was William's niece Queen Victoria, who is the namesake of the following historical era, the Victorian, which is usually defined as occurring from the start of her reign, when William died, and continuing until her death. The term Georgian is typically used in the contexts of social history and architecture.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Regency architecture
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as ‘Prince Regent’. On the death of George III in 1820, the Prince Regent became George IV. The term Regency (or Regency era) can refer to various stretches of time; some are a longer period than the decade of the formal Regency which lasted from 1811 to 1820. The period 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is often attributed as the Regency era characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and culture. The Regency era ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria succeeded William IV.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Arts & Crafts architecture
Arts & Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910. It advocated economic and social reform and was essentially anti-industrial. It had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, and its influence continued among craft makers, designers, and town planners long afterwards. The term was first used in 1887, although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for at least twenty years. It was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin (1812-1852), writer John Ruskin (1819-1900), and artist William Morris (1834-1896). See example: the interior of the Museum Street Methodist Church in Black Horse Lane.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Art Nouveau architecture
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers. Art Nouveau is considered a "total" art style, embracing architecture, graphic art, interior design, and most of the decorative arts including jewellery, furniture, textiles, household silver and other utensils, and lighting, as well as the fine arts. According to the philosophy of the style, art should be a way of life. For many well-off Europeans, it was possible to live in an art nouveau-inspired house with art nouveau furniture, silverware, fabrics, ceramics including tableware, jewellery, cigarette cases, etc. Artists desired to combine the fine arts and applied arts, even for utilitarian objects. See example: Scarborow shop in Dial Lane shows a Charles Rennie Macintosh-style Art Nouveau frontage by John Shewell Corder.

Ipswich Historic Lettering: Art Deco architectureArt Deco: a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It became popular in the 1920s and 1930s, and influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewellery, fashion, cars, cinemas, theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) held in Paris in 1925. It combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress. See example: Electric House, Lloyds Avenue, formerly the Job Centre, The Hogshead, Lloyds Tavern.


See also:
Grand Ipswich timeline for two thousand years of the town's history;
Ipswich invasions timeline to see all the raiders and invaders who attacked Ipswich throughout its history;
Christchurch/Holy Trinity Priory timeline;
Wolsey's College timeline;
Public transport in Ipswich timeline;
Historic Maps page for a note about the Ipswich claim to be the earliest continuously settled town in England.

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